Anson Burlingame

A Memorial of Anson Burlingame
From Syracuse University Library: book from NY memorial pamphlet from Burlingame's memorial in Boston
Anson Burlingame MemorialDSCF5743DSCF5744DSCF5745DSCF5747DSCF5746DSCF5748DSCF5749DSCF5752DSCF5751DSCF5764
Taken from the pamphlet:

Reverend George W. Briggs, D.D. of Cmabridge, Pastor of Church which Mr. Burlingame formerly attended. He delivered the following message at the memorial
The elegraph has seldom borne a sadder or more startling message than that which came on the 23rd of February, two short months ago , to tell us that Anson Burlingame was dead!... It is an unapparalled event for the loss of a single man to awaken in three continents such peculiar and personal sorrow.
China mourns for one who had won the confidence of her rulers, who had introduced her to the family of the nations, and whose lab ors in her behalf commanded her unqualified approval. The Sovereigns and Ministers of the principal Courts of Europe, where he had made a name by his diplomatic talent, and won regard by his manly bearing, regret his too early death. And his countrymen and friends at home, those whose hearts were drawn to him in early manhood, who have watched his career with wonder and with pride, as reflecting honor upon the American name, feel a peculiar and more personal grief.
Boldly pronouncing against the “force policy” which Christendom had previously practiced towards China, striving to make justice free to all alike when acting as our own ambassador to that distant empire, studying the conditions, respecting the rights of its people, while faithful to the interests of those whom he was sent to represent, treating China as an equal among the nations, regarding its millions as of the brotherhood of men, he foreordained the confidence which was awarded him, and the trust which he received.

Anson Burlingame Obit in New York Times

Anson Burlingame Skill With Pistol

Anson Burlingame's Mission

Grave of Anson Burlingame 

Anson Burlingame the Diplomat

Anson Burlingame Evangelist 

The Boys’ Life of Mark Twain - XXV. Hawaii and Anson Burlingame (by Paine).pdf

Childhood of Anson Burlingame

Some Reminiscences of Anson Burlingame
Source: The San Francisco Call
Date: 1897
Description: Betsey Burlingame Hinman's recollection of her brother, with drawing of anson and his sister

Anson Burlingame Letters

Anson Burlingame Letters
A collection of letters from AB to his father-in-law in the early 60s:

Marsailles Sept 11th 1861
My Dear Father
I am off at seven o’clock this morning for it is already morning. I enclose to you two pictures of myself as I appeared the day before I left Paris. I have written an immense number of letters this evening. I enclose also a likeness of my man George. He is a fine fellow who serves me much and is a perfect devotee. He speaks French German and Italian. French he speaks with a better accent than most Frenchman he has lived in France since he was fifteen years of age and was thoroughly educated in the schools. He can teach as well as wait on me. I shall speak French with him the whole way out. He will be of great service in China where so much is thought of show. He will be singular and bright. He is now but twenty-four years of age. His name is George Butter and he was born in Washington. Tell Jennie she need not fear that I will be neglected if sick on the way. _ the note in some way until I can respond from China. I have lived quite prudently and will be able to get in with what I have. In China I am permitted to draw on the _ in advance by giving my check at the end of the quarter. Mrs. Beckwith has been of great service to me in giving me hints about China. Remember me to everybody. I shall write to you from Malta. Excuse the haste of this letter. Send the Journal and have the New York Times Herald Tribune sent regularly to me. Start them all at once for I shall need them. Do take good care of yourself and all the children. God Bless you all
Your aff son

Tientsin Oct 12th 1862
My dear father
Jennie and Gertie arrived safely at this place, where I meet them, coming from Peking. I had been so far away, had little notice of their coming until they arrived. They are in charming health and spirits. We leave for Peking tomorrow by boat. I have purchased a house and some land in Peking for a Legation, , making myself the first proprietor of land in that city. The whole will cost me about $7000. There was no other way.
Jennie has written you however all about these things. I will send you the money for everything by the next mail. I _ for or at home. I have been received well at Peking and am in a condition to do some good for my country. I have thus far done much for which I have received the unqualified approval of my Government. I can sell my house when I shall go away for more than it cost me. I hope. You cannot image how much obliged I am to you for the papers you have sent. They _ come regularly and early. I will write more next time. I only write these few lines to profess my great happiness at the arrival of Jennie and Gertie and my warm remembrance of you _ all at home. I know you will look carefully after the boys. Don’t fail to write me by every mail. I will not stop writing because Jennie has arrived, but as she is so much better as a correspondent, than I am, you will of course get all the nice things from her.
I gather hope for the country from the last news, because it tells me that the country is in earnest. I have always that the thing might be compromised in some way. Now I see indications of a ripe and intelligent sentiment and whether the war may be long or short, the question will be settled right. If I had had an idea the war would have lasted so long, I should have returned home and gone into the fight for my whole heart is in the struggle and sometimes I think I might do something there.
Yours affectionately

Peking Jan 2nd 1865
My dear Father
I wrote you some time since about the telegraph. I repeat here what I then wrote. That for no earthly consideration can I or remotely receive any minary benefit which may result from my official action. I know the country may think such all right but I do not. I shall do all I can to secure the right to put down wires along the coast. I can full discussion with the Chinese but you must remember that by treaty or grant to me is a _ to all the ed
Jennie has written about the reception of the glorious election news. I thank God for it. I shall keep you of the action of the . Jennie has written so full about affairs that there is nothing left for me to write. Give my regards to (laundry list of people)
Yours aff

Peking Jan 13th 1865
My dear father
I have only a word to write. I am pressing the _ for the right to build a telegraph between the treaty parts. I should have a meeting with the officials next Monday on the subject. I repeat what I have before written about myself. I see that the C_ is made up of honorable men. I will inform you of the result of my interviews next Monday. My heart is made glad by the news from home by California to the 25th of Oct. I have succeeded in getting I hope a large claim for R_ from the Chinese gov’t. I have really, thanks to a fearless and honest course won the respect and confidence of the Chinese and my colleagues. I now just received a beautiful letter from Sir Frederick Bruce my colleague from England, now at home, in which he informs me how seriously the Queen and Lord Jon Russell support the co-operative policy I have adopted. I do not mean to mar the good reputation I have made. I hope God’s will grant the leave for which I have asked. That I may once more _ my eyes by looking upon my native land and the _ ones at home
Love to all
Your aff

AB ltr about telegraph.pdf
(doc would not load from Wikispaces)

An early letter to his parents

Detroit Sept 2nd 1839
Dear mother
Yours is received and with pleasure I hasten to answer it, but feeble is language when feeling is to be expressed smoothly as sentences may be put together they are unable to convey the love which I feel for home and every object which it contains; things the smallest note are in my memory – the Garden Little dog Fox and ten thousand things simple in reality call to mind pleasing associations – the stars which I have climbed – the well who’s chrytal water cool from its bottom I have drank to quench an Ague thirst, the Lake from who’s depths I have taken the beautiful fish – the stream who’ s mighty gurgle I have listened to in extacy, and the woods that spread so beautiful around Branch and who’s shade has so often buried me from human sight, are as green in my memory as when they first assume their summer garb, each of these things in the pictures of recollection are as plan and palpable as if they were before me, and day after day in its panarama do I see magnified the beauties and pleasures of the past. But if these thinks so simple in their nature awaken such a lively interest in my mind what must be the thoughts and feelings when each feature all blooming with life of homes more fond endearments – Parents – Brothers – and Sisters are before me exibeted in the same picture. The world in its intercourse with me may consider me a cold and unfeeling being, who cannot drop a tear oer the grave of a friend or relation – they may partly think right. I am a peculiar being – a stranger indeed to tears – but let no individual judge my feelings by such a where my eye is undesired by the tear – there burns that feeling within which if tears could come they would quench – but enough of this. I am now in the honey moon of life no trouble except that which I myself create by anticipation – bright prospects open before me and all goes swimmingly – yet nothing can be depended upon – the world is rife with change and revolution – the great wheel of fate in its evolutions may help me on the under side, the world is full of candidates who are active and vigilant and to gain requires the most untireing preseverence and with all a good supply of what is called native genius, where I may finally book my name it is impossible for me to say – perhaps in South America. Texas or Oregon but as for enlisting – why, what in the world made you think for a moment such was my intention. Enlist ha-ha-ha- I know to well a regular soldiers life – When my Country needs my help I am ready – when it is invaded I will stand in the ranks an honorable soldier but not in peace – no-no- I thought I would smooth over Moses case – but the fellow after I had so long hushed his situation must needs desert his post – the fool – but Jim Wallace is a true and faithful soldier – and I hate one that is not so – when honor and every thing is pledged I say stand the hazard of the die even if a fellow have to go and fight the climate and the musketoes of Florida. So miss Betsey has at last condescended to write to me – I hope she will continue to do so for I had just as live receive a letter from her as any body else if she is small – I should like well to receive a letter from Susan & Calvin. Betsey spoke in her letter as if she thought I have forgotten Susan. No by Heaven, can’t do it – she is an old play mate of mine, she was with me in my youth, and for fun, for the wide for the deep laid mischievous trick, she’s the child I recollect as if it were but yesterday her movements, she was a wild girl, and when, I saw her coming full tilt down the old lane – her dress all loose and hair disheveled – and laughing loudly I know some daring adventure was ahead – perhaps you recollect the sound whipping you gave us for filling the well full of corn stalks. That or day I was 5 years old, she was the progenitor of that trick and if I mistake not, she threw in the first stalk; (I beg her and Calvin’s pardon for these experiences but I make them to probe the position which I have taken.

Second page is missing

Early correspondence from the Library of Congress
Most is while he was in Detroit or his days in Congress

American Needs More Anson Burlingames

China and Anson Burlingame

 Anson Burlingame Poster-Feb 19-2013.pdf

For the Equality of Men For the Equality of Nations Anson Burlingame and China's First Embassy to the United States, 1868
Author: John Schrecker, Brandeis University
Source: Journal of American-East Asian Relations 17(2010)9-34

Personal Recollections in Berlin

Burlingame's Mission

AB's Body Arrives by Steamer

AB Early Life in Detroit

AB Remains Depart for Boston

Official Corr Relating to the Death of the Chinese Ambass_NYT

Some Pleasant Recollections of Time in Berlin_NYT

The Movements of AB_NYT

Burlingame's Letters to Lincoln
Source: Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress

Search by keyword: Anson Burlingame

Results include two letters from AB to Lincoln and two Lincoln letters to Seward mentioning AB and his minister post. (Burlingame's letters, one from 1860, 1 page, the other from 1862, 3 pages, have been uploaded in Files. Lincoln's letters have accompanying transcripts on the website, better to view on the websites)


New York Times Articles

Published Family Letters from China

The Far Eastern Quarterly (pre-1986); Aug 1946; 5, 4; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 455
Source: Syracuse University
Description: These are two letter from Burlingame's wife Jane to her son Edward and her father
A Bandit Threat to the Burlingame Mission.pdf

The Far Eastern Quarterly (pre-1986); May 1945; 4, 3; ABI/INFORM Global
pg. 274
Source: Syracuse University
Description: These are two letter from Burlingame's wife Jane to her son Edward and her father
The Beginning of the Burlingame Mission.pdf

Author: Walter Anson Burlingame; Warren B Walsh
Notes: From: Pacific historical review. p. 452-454 ; 26 cm. Pacific historical review. [by Walter Anson Burlingame] ; edited by Warren B. Walsh.
A visit to the Tsungli Yamen.pdf

 Walsh, Warren B., Young Yankee in China. , Pacific Historical Review, 15:3 (1946:Sept.) p.322
Young Yankee in China.pdf

 Walsh, Warren B., Pacific Voyage, 1866. , Pacific Historical Review, 15:1 (1946:Mar.) p.85
Pacific Voyage.pdf

Newspaper reports on Burlingame Mission

Newspaper reports on Burlingame Mission
Source: New York Times (1857-1922); Jan 29, 1862;
Title: China. Reception of the American Minister
Burlingame in Hong Kong.pdf
Burlingame in Hong Kong.pdf
42 KB

Source: New York Times (1857-1922); Feb 9, 1868;
Title: Hon. Anson Burlingame's Mission
Burlingame's mission.pdf
Burlingame's mission.pdf
26 KB

Source: The Daily Morning Chronicle (1868-1869); Mar 30, 1869;
Title: Our London Letters
account of Chinese Embassy received by Napoleon.
Burlingame received by Napolean.pdf
Burlingame received by Napolean.pdf
163 KB

Source: New York Times (1857-1922); Mar 24, 1870;
Title: Anson Burlingame: Some Pleasant Personal Recollections of his Life in Berlin - his enthusiastic Americanism
personal recollections in Berlin.pdf
personal recollections in Berlin.pdf
100 KB

Source: New York Times (1857-1922); Feb 13, 1901;
Also Speaks in Brooklyn of Burlingame and his Work in China
Minister Wu speaks of Burlingame's work in China.pdf
Minister Wu speaks of Burlingame's work in China.pdf
200 KB

Note: For all the Daily Alta links below, click on the highlighted/foggy area, a prompt will allow you to either save a PDF, text, or clip the relevant article

Source: Daily Alta California, 25 October 1868

Source: Daily Alta California, 4 April 1870

Daily Alta California, 23 June 1868

Daily Alta California, 2 May 1866
Note; Burlingame family's visit to Yosemite

Daily Alta California, 15 August 1868
Note: reception by the Chinese Embassy in DC

Daily Alta California, 15 September 1867
comment on Burlingame's diplomacy seemingly placing Chinese natives first

Daily Alta California, 22 March 1868
AB's letter to the State Department regarding the appt.

Daily Alta California, 17 February 1868
appt and reactions

Daily Alta California, 26 February 1870

Daily Alta California, 10 April 1870

Daily Alta California, 24 March 1870

Daily Alta California, 2 April 1868

Daily Alta California, 23 May 1869

Daily Alta California, 2 April 1868

Daily Alta California, 26 January 1869
quotes from a French Governer astonished to find an american as Chinese Ambassador

European Intelligence. [ARTICLE]
Daily Alta California, 2 February 1869one sentence regarding AB in France copied below
Paris, February Ist.— General Dix yesterday received Hod. Anson Burlingame and the Chinese Ambassadors, with their suites. Princess Mathilde gives a reception this week to the Chinese Embassy.

Sacramento Daily Union, 19 March 1870

Sacramento Daily Union, 26 February 1870

Sacramento Daily Union, 1 May 1868

Sacramento Daily Union, 19 July 1866
(Hornet story reported by Mark Twain, mentions AB)

Sacramento Daily Union, 12 March 1886
(accuse AB of "deliberately sold his country")

Cheshire Observer and Chester, Birkenhead, Crewe and North Wales Times (Chester, England), Saturday, September 26, 1868; Issue 670. 19th Century British Library Newspapers: Part II.

The Morning Post (London, England), Wednesday, January 26, 1870; pg. 2; Issue 29995.
include AB's dispatch to a German Count

From New York Daily Tribune


card from AB.pdf



presentation before departure.pdf

 The North-China herald and Supreme Court & consular gazette, Volume 79

Title: Noted Men Who have Helped China
June 29, 1906

LOC handwritten News Report of the Chinese Embassy (no source cited)

This is a not too positive report on AB taking the position with the Chinese in 1867

News report on Burlingame's appt to Chinese legation.pdf

Illustrated London News Article on the Chinese Legation
October 1868

Illustrated London News.pdf

 AA Archival Log

A A Archival Log
Key Word
Contact Info
Date of Origin
Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame, head & shoulders, rt. Profile
Reproduction Number:
(b&w film copy neg.)
Call Number:
LOT 3183, p. 77 [item] [P&P]
Prints & Photographs Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540

books, dissertations
A visit to the Tsungli Yamen

A visit to the Tsungli Yamen.pdf
A visit to the Tsungli Yamen.pdf
153 KB

external image insert_table.gif[[image:/i/bullet_arrow_down.gif width="15" height="15"]]Author: Walter Anson Burlingame; Warren B Walsh
Publisher: University of California Press, 19--]
OCLC Number: 56426949
Notes: From: Pacific historical review. p. 452-454 ; 26 cm. Pacific historical review. [by Walter Anson Burlingame] ; edited by Warren B. Walsh.
University of Hong Kong

Key Word
Contact Info
Date of Origin
AB speeches
Address upon the life and character of Washington : delivered before the Brady and Scott Guards on the 22d February, 1843
Author: Anson Burlingame
Publisher: Detroit : Sheldon M'Knight, Printer, 1843.
Washington's Birthday addresses.
OCLC Number: 885798533
Notes: Reproduction of original from Huntington Library.
Description: 225 p.
Other Titles: Sabin Americana, 1500-1926.
Miami University Libraries
King Library
OXFORD, OH 45056
United States
books, dissertations
Anson Burlingame and the first Chinese mission to foreign powers
Author : Williams, Frederick Wells, 1857-1928.
Title : Anson Burlingame and the first Chinese mission to foreign powers.
Published : New York : Scribner’s, 1912.
Restrictions : Access to portions of this material may be restricted.
Location : Widener Ch 120.7.5
Description : x, 369 p. port. 22 cm.
Notes : Bibliography: p. 359-366.
HOLLIS Number : 001423883
Howard University
Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Smithsonian Libraries
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20540
Harvard University
google doc/pdf
books, dissertations
Anson Burlingame : a study in personal diplomacy
Author: Sun-gi Kim
Publisher: Ann Arbor, Mich. [usw.] Univ.: Univ. Microfilms Internat., 1977.
Dissertation: Erschien zuerst als Diss. 1966.
OCLC Number: 251432635
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin State Library �€’ Prussian Cultural Heritage
Berlin, D-10785 Germany
Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame, full lgth., standing, facing left; with 2 Chinese men.
Reproduction Number:
LC-USZ62-66340 (b&w film copy neg.)
Call Number:
BIOG FILE - Burlingame, Anson, 1820-1870 [item] [P&P]
Prints & Photographs Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540

Correspondence, incoming and outgoing (1856-1967); legal and financial records; memorabilia, including address books, clippings, genealogical records, and photographs; and writings, mostly of Roger Burlingame, including manuscript and/or published articles, books, book reviews, diaries, poems, short stories, and speeches. Family members represented include Anson Burlingame (1820-1870), a politician and diplomat; Edward L. Burlingame (1848-1922), author and editor; William Roger Burlingame (1889-1967), author, biographer, and novelist; and his wife, Angeline Whinton (d. 1967), a literary agent, known professionally as Ann Watkins. Notable correspondents include Leonard Bacon, Kay Boyle, Elmer Davis, John Dos Passos, Allen W. Dulles, Milton Eisenhower, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Kenneth Galbraith, Nathan G. Goodman, Sidney Howard, Henry James, Rudyard Kipling, Archibald MacLeish, John P. Marquand, Edward R. Murrow, Lithgow Osborne, Henry F. Pringle, Elmo Roper, William L. Shirer, James Thurber, Edith Wharton, E.B. White, Hetty Whitney, Thornton Wilder, and others.
Burlingame Family Papers
Special Collections Research Center,
Syracuse University Library
222 Waverly Avenue
Syracuse, NY 13244-2010


Burlingame Family Papers, 1810-1937. This collection consists of correspondence and other papers of Anson Burlingame, his wife Jane Cornelia Livermore Burlingame, and their son Edward Livermore Burlingame. Ii includes memorabilia, a diary, maps, photos, and commissions from President Lincoln. Important correspondents include William H. Seward, Charles Sumner, George Bancroft, John C. Fremont, Jessie Benton Fremont, William Cullen Bryant, Theodore Parker, Richard Henry Dana, Thomas Nast, Horace Mann, Rudyard Kipling, Mark Twain, Edith Wharton, Frances Hodgson Burnett, and Gustave Dore.
Reproduction Microfilm Washington, D.C. Library of Congress c1967 5 microfilm reels, 35 mm
Note Reproduction and publication restricted Library of Congress, Manuscript Division
Description 5 reels
Descript Microfilm
Note Part of the Land-grant Research Collection
University Archives & Historical Collections
Michigan State University
101 Conrad Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824-1327
Tel.: (517) 355-2330
Fax: (517) 353-9319


This series consists of resolutions of State legislatures, petitions and memorials referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

During the 19th century the three subjects that prompted the greatest number of petitions to the committee were those involving the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War (25A-G6.1, 26A-G6.3, 27A-G7.3, 28A-G7.5, 29A-G5.3, 30A-G6.2), restrictions on Chinese immigration (41A-H4.2, 42A-H5.1, 44A-H5.3, 48A-H9.3, 49A-H9.1, 50A-H10.2, 51A-H8.1, 52A-H7.4, 53A-H11.3), and Cuban independence (41A-H4.1, 42A-H5.3, 43A-H6.2, 54A-H11.2).
Petitions and Memorials, compiled 1822 - 1968, documenting the period 1810 - 1968
ARC Identifier 565658
Series from Record Group 233: Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1789 - 2006
reator(s): U.S. House of Representatives. Committee on Foreign Affairs. (03/13/1822 - 03/19/1975)
Type(s) of Archival Materials: Textual Records
Inclusive Dates: 1822 - 1968
Coverage Dates: 1810 - 1968
Date Note: The records in this series that predate the establishment of the standing committee were created by various predecessor select and special committees and incorporated into the standing committee's files.
Part Of: Record Group 233: Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1789 - 2006
Access Restriction(s): Unrestricted
Use Restriction(s): Unrestricted
Center for Legislative Archives (NWL)
National Archives Building
Room 8E
7th and Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC, 20408
PHONE: 202-357-5350
FAX: 202-357-5911

books, dissertations
The Burlingame mission : a political disclosure, supported by official documents, mostly unpublished. To which are added: various papers and discourses on the claim of the Emperor of China to universal supremacy; the true nature of actual diplomatic relations between China and western powers; the position and influence in China of Robert Hart, esq., as confidential adviser of the Tsung-li Yamen; the Hart-Alcock convention; the dispersion of the Lay-Osborn flotilla; the "New Chinese University"; the policy of the United States in China; the new China policy of England; the western policy, and the diplomacy of the Chinese government; the massacre of Tien-tsin; the Chung-'ho mission; the audience question; and the coming war. --
Gumpach, Johannes von
Control number: NY006224211 082094
Local control number: 0901449128 OCL Upgrade
Author: Gumpach, Johannes von.
Imprint: Shanghai; New York : [s.n.], 1872.
Physical description: xviii, 891 p. : ill. ; 23cm.
Note: Microfilm. (American culture, 1493-1875, r. 621, no. 9)
Held by: NYSL
Subject: Burlingame, Anson, 1820-1870.
Subject: China--Foreign relations.
Call number: 320.973 A51, reel 33:11
Location/Holdings: MB/FM

letter, Twain
Mark Twain letter to Burlingame on his appt to China
Burlingame Family Papers - Box 1
Manuscript Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540
letter, parents
AB to parents - Detroit Sept 24, 1839
Burlingame Family Papers - Box 1
Manuscript Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540
letter, parents
AB to parents - Detroit June 30, 1839
Burlingame Family Papers - Box 1
Manuscript Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540
letter, Lincoln
AB to Lincoln - Boston, Oct 31, 1860; intro of Henry Chamberlain, esq
Burlingame Family Papers - Box 1
Manuscript Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540
letter, Lincoln
AB to Lincoln - Shanghai, march 6 1862; intro of M G Ward
Burlingame Family Papers - Box 1
Manuscript Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540
Magazine article
Anson Burlingame: Reformer and Diplomat
Anderson, David L. “Anson Burlingame: Reformer and Diplomat.” Civil War History 25 (December 1979): 293-308; as noted on
Magazine article
Anson Burlingame: American Architect of the Cooperative Policy in China, 1861-1871
Anderson, David L. “Anson Burlingame: American Architect of the Cooperative Policy in China, 1861-1871.” Diplomatic History 1 (Summer 1977): 239-56; as noted on
Imperialism and Idealism: American Diplomats in China, 1861–1898
Anderson, David L., Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985
speeches, Congress
An appeal to patriots against fraud and disunion
Washington, D.C.: Buell & Blanchard, printers
speeches, Congress
Defence [sic] of Massachusetts. Speech of Hon. Anson Burlingame, of Massachusetts, in the House of Representatives, June 21, 1856
House records?
Anson Burlingame; His Mission to China and the First Chinese Mission to Western Nations
Yeager, Carl Francis. Anson Burlingame; His Mission to China and the First Chinese Mission to Western Nations . Washington: N.p., 1950.
books, dissertations
Anson Burlingame, S. Wells Williams and China, 1861-1870: A Great Era in Chinese-American Relations
Material Type:
Martin Robert Ring
OCLC Number:
i, 341 l. 20 cm.
Tulane University,
University of Maryland Libraries
Theodore R. McKeldin Library
College Park, MD 20742 United States
memorial, tribute
Tribute of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New-York, to the memory of Anson Burlingame, late ambassador from China, March 3d, 1870
Elliot C. Cowdin. Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York. Tribute of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New-York, to the memory of Anson Burlingame, late ambassador from China, March 3d, 1870. New-York: J. W. Amerman, printer, 1870.
NY Times
March 4, 1870
books, dissertations
“The Life of Anson Burlingame.”
Koo, Telly H. “The Life of Anson Burlingame.” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1922.
The Burlingame Mission
Gumpach, Johannes von. The Burlingame Mission . Shanghai, New York [etc.]: N.p., 1872.
Manuscript Division
101 Independence Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20540
Campbell, James Edwin. Sunmer—Brooks-Burlingame . Columbus, Ohio: N.p., 1925; as noted on
American Diplomacy in the Orient
John W. Foster, as mentioned in
Americans in Eastern Asia
Tyler Dennett, as mentioned in
China and America: The Story of Their Relations since 1784
Foster Rhea Dulles, as mentioned in
The Making of a Special Relationship: The United States and China to 1914
Hunt, Michael H. The Making of a Special Relationship: The United States and China to 1914. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.
chinese exclusion
Oriental Exclusion
R. D. McKenzie
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
chinese exclusion
The Unwelcome Immigrant�€‹
�€‹S. C. Miller
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia

The Story of the Chinese in America
B. L. Sung
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia

Driven Out: The Forgotten War against Chinese Americans
J. Pfaelzer
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
memorial, tribute
The Childhood of Anson Burlingame -- Personal Recollections of Gen W H Gibson
Published: March 6, 1870 Copyright © The New York Times

newspaper clipping
WB letter; attack in China
A BANDIT THREAT TO THE BURLINGAME MISSION, includes letter from Walter to his gradfather

A Bandit Threat to the Burlingame Mission.pdf
A Bandit Threat to the Burlingame Mission.pdf
339 KB

WARREN B WALSH The Far Eastern Quarterly (pre-1986); Aug 1946; 5, 4; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 455; also notes K. Biggerstaff, "A translation of Anson Burlingame's instructions from the Chinese foreign office," Far Eastern Quarterly, 1 (May 1942), 277-279; and W. B. Walsh, "The beginnings of the Burlingame mission," Far Eastern Quarterly 4, (May, 1945) 274-277.


attack in China
The Chinese Embassy to All the Treaty Powers
G.H. Colton Salter. North China Herald, Shanghai

December 14, 1867

Hon. Anson Burlingame
Walter Hilliard Bidwell, The Eclectic Magazine, n.s., vol 8, pp. 1155-7, with portrait. New York

September 1868

A Talk with Mr. Burlingame about China
Richard J. Hinton, The Galaxy, vol 6, pp. 613-623. New York

November 1868

The Chinese Mission to Christendom
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, col 68, pp. 194-206 Edinburgh

February 1869

Banquet in Honor of Major-General John A. Dix, Late Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States to France, Given by the Americans of Paris
Paris, 1869. 46pp. Containing a speech by Burlingame



Chinese Attitude and Instruction for Burlingame Mission

A Translation of Anson Burlingame's Instructions from the Chinese Foreign Office Author(s): Knight Biggerstaff Source: The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3 (May, 1942), pp. 277-279 Published by: Association for Asian Studies Stable URL:
Instructions from Chinese Foreign Office.pdf

The Official Chinese Attitude Toward the Burlingame Mission Author(s): Knight Biggerstaff Source: The American Historical Review, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Jul., 1936), pp. 682-702 Published by: American Historical Association Stable URL:
Official Chinese Attitudes toward Burlingame Mission.pdf

 Author : David Anderson
Date: Published in 1985
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Description: Anson Burlingame is from Page 17
Prince Kung from Page 23

Mark Twain Writings related to AB
Comprehensive information on Mark Twain papers, full-text searchable:

Source: Mark Twain’s Autobiography with an introduction by Albert Bigelow Paine, Vol. II, Harper and Brothers, 1924, p.121-126

Note: include a letter by Burlingame's grand daughter to MT about his article on AB.

Chapter Title: Anson Burlingame And The "Hornet" Disaster
Book Title: Mark Twain, A Biography
Author: Albert Bigelow Paine

The Boys’ Life of Mark Twain - XXV. Hawaii and Anson Burlingame (by Paine).pdf

Source: Mark Twain’s Letters, Vol. I, 1853-1866, Editors: Edgar Marquess Branch, Michael B. Frank, Kenneth M. Sanderson, University of California Press 1988
p.343-348 letter from Sandwich Islands about meeting AB

Note: Copy-text: MS, Jean Webster McKinney Family Papers, Vassar College Library.

Source: Mark Twain’s Letters, Vol. II, 1867-1868, Editors: Harriet Elinor Smith, Richard Bucci, University of California Press 1990
MTLetter to AB.pdf

Manuscript of the first letter not found. In 1932 When Cyril Clemens published the letter, it belonged to Frederick A. Burlingame.
Second letter: Manuscript from the Papers of Burlingame Family, Library of Congress.

Transcript of the 2nd letter:
224 F Street
Washington, DC Feb 19th
Your Excellency,
This is to duplicate a letter I wrote yesterday by the unreliable Overland mail wherein was set forth that I shall have completed my book in the course of a couple months of so – then I would like to go with your Embassy as a dignitary of some kind or other, & privately on my own hook as Herald Tribune correspondent. I want to be a mild sort of dignitary, though, particularly. Pray save me a place. Correspondents will hover about the Expedition anyhow, & so it will be best to the interests of China & the world, that one of them, at least, should be reliable.
With kindest regards to my Sandwich Islands acquaintance among your now exceedingly large family, I remain,
Yours truly,
Mark Twain

MT letter to EB.pdf

Letter to Edward Burlingame
Manuscript not found.In 1932 When Cyril Clemens published the letter, it belonged to Frederick A. Burlingame.

Title:The Chinese Mission
Source:New York Daily Tribune 3/11/1868
Chinese Mission by MT.pdf

AA Project Contact

A A Project Contact
First Name
Last Name
Chinese Name
Title in Chinese
Committee of 100 member

650 255 6902
Pres/Chinese American Heroes


Burlingame Researcher


descendant, retired stanford librarian


010-62755456, 13910831633

Committee of 100 member


��������Ž‹�œ 主任




Brandeis University
She wrote a PhD thesis on anson burlingame called "�’��‰�‡��Ž�—��œŸ中�Ž�…�系�”究“
Cuicui Guo's advisor

recommended by ��������Ž‹�œ, based in australia and did some research on burlingame.

local private collector and researcher on burlingame



Univeristy of Illinois

(217) 206-6779

George's friend

13501226954 (h) 010-85131278 





David L.

Professor of History
California State University, Monterey Bay
Social, Behavioral, and Global Studies, CSUMB, 100 Campus Center, Seaside CA 93955
Author of journal article: "Anson Burlingame, Reformer and Diplomat", 1979, Civil War History
Author of book Imperialism and Idealism: American Diplomats in China (1985)


Mission to Russia

Articles on AB

Articles on AB
David L. Anderson, “Anson Burlingame: Reformer and Diplomat,” Civil War History 25 (1979): 293-308.
AB Reformer and Diplomat.pdf

P. 302
In 1861 before leaving Europe, Burlingame met Benjamin Moran, the assistant secretary of the United States legation in London. After their meeting, Moran noted critically:"I have heard much of this person, and was led to believe him to be a man of dignity and refinement, but I find him only ordinary and and totally unfit for the Diplomatic Post." Such things had been said about him before, but in the past he plunged ahead full of enthusiasm. "I proceed to my new post with difference," Burlingme wrote Seward, "but still with pleasure for there is a fine field and I am yet a young man."

The new minister arrived at Macao in October 1861, a month before his forty-first birthday. Largely because the winter made Peking inaccessible, he did not proceed to the capital until the following July. .. He had no staff other than Samuel Wells Williams, the missionary turned diplomat served as secretary of the legation. In the hills twelve miles west of Peking, Burlingame established a summer legation at Sanshanan (Temple of the Three Hills). He named it "Tremont Temple", after the favorite Free Soil meeting place in Boston.

Before receiving his appointment to the post in Peking...employing an orator's stereotype, he had remarked that when he was ready to depart from practicality, he would "join the immovable civilization of China, and take the false doctrines of Confucius for my guide, with their backward-looking thoughts." After arriving in China, he began to understand that
such comments were symptomatic of the gulf of misunderstanding that separated the Eastern and Western civilizations. Both Chinese and Westerners were basically ignorant and disrespectful of each other’s culture. Consequently, Westerners had often resorted to coercion of the Chinese in an effort to overcome stubborn and haughty Chinese resistance to Western intrusions into China. In the face of Western threats and force, the Chinese became even more recalcitrant. Burlingame later recalled:
"When I came to China, in 1861, the force policy was the rule. It was said “the Chinese are conceited barbarians, and must be forced into our civilization;” or in the energetic language of the time, it was said, “you must take them by the throat”

“The imagination kindles at the future which may be,” he told a New York audience,” and which will be if you will be fair and just to China.”

Title: Burlingame as an Orator
Serial: The Atlantic Monthly Volume 0026 Issue 157 (November 1870) Title: Mr. Burlingame as an Orator [pp. 629-632]
Collection: Journals: Atlantic Monthly (1857 - 1901)
http://digital.library. pageviewer-idx?c=atla;cc=atla; rgn=full%20text;idno=atla0026- 5;didno=atla0026-5;view=image; seq=0635;node=atla0026-5%3A13

Title: America Needs More Anson Burlingame
Author: Chinese American Forum / George Koo
America needs more Anson Burlingames.pdf

Title: Anson Burlingame: Diplomat, Evangelist, Idea Person
Author: T. K. Chu
Source: Chinese American Forum
Anson Burlingame Diplomat Evangelist Idea Person.pdf

Title: Burlingame and the Inauguration of the Co-Operative Policy
Author(s): S. S. Kim
Source: Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 5, No. 4 (1971), pp. 337-354 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL:
Burlingame and Co-operative Policy.pdf

Taken from the article:

“The imagination kindles at the future which may be,” he told a New York audience,” and which will be if you will be fair and just to China.”

The physical setting of the Western legation in a closely knit compound in Peking provide an ever-present forum for consultation among the representatives of the treaty powers. The extent to which Westerners in Peking at this time formed a self-contained community is well reflected in one of Mrs. Burlingame’s letters to her father in Boston: “There are very few strangers in Peking, and we are having a pleasant, quiet time. We have got into such a way of feeling that we own Peking, that we look upon all outsiders as intruders when they break in upon our quiet [community]. Sir Frederick [Bruce] has nicknamed all such [persons] as “Gorillas”, and it is the universal announcement of a stranger’s arrival, that “a Gorilla has come”.
(the Secretary of State) Seward’s first diplomatic instruction to Burlingame dated 30 July 1861 is uniquely devoid of the customary long-term policy guide usually given to a new minister and instead contains mostly procedural matters with the promise that general instructions will soon be forthcoming. This promise was fulfilled in the dispatch to Burlingame dated 6 March 1862, in which Seward gave his famous “consult and co-operate” instructions:
“The interests of this country in China, so far as I understand them, are identical with those of the two other nations I have mentioned. There is no reason to doubt that the British and French ministers are acting in such a manner as will best promote the interests of all the western nations. You are therefore instructed to consult and co-operate with them, unless in special cases, there shall be very satisfactory reasons for separating from them.
In the dispatch of 17 June 1862 from Shanghai, however, Burlingame met policy matters head on:
“It certainly is not our [American] policy to acquire territory in China, nor do we desire to interfere in the political struggles of the Chinese further than to maintain our treaty rights. When these are endangered by pirate and bandits (and the rebels are wishing also) and the English, French, and Chinese are seeking to maintain treaty rights, to be neutral [between the Imperialists and the Taiping rebels and bandits] is to be indifferent, not only to the rights of our citizens but to the interests of civilization.”
Burlingame’s first statement on the Co-operative Policy also appears in this dispatch: “If the treaty powers could agree among themselves to guarantee the integrity of China and together secure order…the interests of humanity would be subserved.”
He believed that the British and French were momentarily honouring China’s political and territorial integrity but “how long they [the British and French] may remain in agreement [to uphold China’s integrity] it is impossible to imagine. Burlingame then stated to Seward with characteristic optimism: “If at any future time the English or French, or either of them, should menace the integrity of the Chinese territory then the very fact that we [the Americans] had acted with them for low and order would give us greater weight against such a policy.”

By June 1863 Burlingame could confidently report to Seward on the unanimity of all the foreign representatives in Peking on the Co-operative Policy:
“The policy upon which we are agreed is briefly this: that while we claim our treaty right to buy and sell, and hire, in the treaty ports, subject, in respect to our rights of property and person, to the jurisdiction of our own governments, we will not ask for, not take concessions of, territory in the treaty ports, or in any way interfere with jurisdiction of the Chinese government over its own people, nor ever menace the territorial integrity of the Chinese empire. That we will not take part in the internal struggles in China, beyond what is necessary to maintain our treaty rights. That the latter we will unitedly sustain against all who may violate them. To this end we are now clear in the policy of defending the treaty ports against the Taipings, or rebels; but in such a way as not to make war upon that considerable body of the Chinese people, by following them into the interior of their country.”

P.351 footnote
Horatio N. Lay, the first inspector-general of the Maritime Customs, recalled his days at Peking in the early 1860s: “The foreign ministers met frequently at the house of Mr. Burlingame as upon neutral territory, and there we discussed over our cigars Chinese policy past and present, and in our stroll, which usually closed the afternoon’s confab the policy that should be pursued in the future was the constant theme.”

Burlingame Family Papers

Burlingame Family Papers
An inventory of their papers at Syracuse University

Overview of the Collection
Burlingame family.
Burlingame Family Papers
Inclusive Dates:
30.5 linear ft.
Correspondence, incoming and outgoing (1856-1967); legal and financial records; memorabilia, including address books, clippings, genealogical records, and photographs; and writings, mostly of Roger Burlingame, including manuscript and/or published articles, books, book reviews, diaries, poems, short stories, and speeches. Family members represented include Anson Burlingame (1820-1870), a politician and diplomat; Edward L. Burlingame (1848-1922), author and editor; William Roger Burlingame (1889-1967), author, biographer, and novelist; and his wife, Angeline Whinton (d. 1967), a literary agent, known professionally as Ann Watkins. Notable correspondents include Leonard Bacon, Kay Boyle, Elmer Davis, John Dos Passos, Allen W. Dulles, Milton Eisenhower, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Kenneth Galbraith, Nathan G. Goodman, Sidney Howard, Henry James, Rudyard Kipling, Archibald MacLeish, John P. Marquand, Edward R. Murrow, Lithgow Osborne, Henry F. Pringle, Elmo Roper, William L. Shirer, James Thurber, Edith Wharton, E.B. White, Hetty Whitney, Thornton Wilder, and others.
Special Collections Research Center,
Syracuse University Library
222 Waverly Avenue
Syracuse, NY 13244-2010

Biographical History
Three generations of the Burlingame family are represented in the papers of this collection. The three major historical figures in the family are discussed below in accordance with the amount of material present on each individual.
Anson Burlingame was born in 1820, the son of Joel and his wife Freelove (Angell) Burlingame. He attended the University of Michigan and Harvard Law School. After marriage to Jane Cornelia Livermore, the daughter of Isaac Livermore, Burlingame began a promising political career in the Massachusetts Senate. In 1855 he was elected as a Republican to Congress where he served three terms. After the presidential campaign of 1860 he became minister to Peking in which capacity he concluded the Burlingame Treaty. Burlingame died while on a diplomatic mission to St. Petersburg, Russia in 1870.
Edward Livermore Burlingame was the first son born to Anson Burlingame in 1848. As a young man he grew up in the Cambridge, Massachusetts area, and in 1861 entered Harvard. When his father was appointed minister to China, young Edward followed him to Peking, and later Paris, Berlin, Heidelberg, and St. Petersburg. In 1871 he began a career with the New York Tribune, and married Ella Frances Badger in the same year. Burlingame became a literary advisor to Charles Scribner's Sons, and in 1886 was appointed editor of the new Scribner's Magazine, a post he held until his resignation in 1914. E. L. Burlingame died in 1922.
The second son of Edward and Ella Burlingame was William Roger Burlingame, who was born in 1889. As a boy Roger attended Morristown School and went on to Harvard University, graduating from the latter in 1913. After serving with the American Expeditionary Force in France, he returned to America and assumed various posts with Charles Scribner's Sons. In 1926 he began a career as a free-lance writer augmented by teaching stints at Barnard and M.I.T. During the course of his long career, Burlingame wrote many articles, essays, books, and short stories. He is particularly known for non-fiction works on the historical impact of industry and technology on American society, though he did publish several novels during the early part of his career. His autobiography, published in 1958, is entitled I Have Known Many Words.
In 1933 Roger married Angeline Whinton, known professionally as Ann Watkins, literary agent and president of Ann Watkins Inc. Mr. and Mrs. Burlingame died within a few days of each other in 1967.
A genealogical chart of the Burlingame family is available at the end of this inventory.

Scope and Contents of the Collection
The Burlingame Family Papers, 1856-1967, consist of the private and public papers of several generations of a prominent American family. The major contributor to the collection is writer and historian Roger Burlingame. There are also small amounts of material relating to Anson, Walter A., Edward Livermore, and Ann (Whinton) Burlingame. The papers are organized in five major groups: Correspondence, Legal and Financial Records, Memorabilia, Organization Records, and Writings.
Correspondence (Boxes 1-14) dates from 1856 to 1967, and is separated into incoming and outgoing letters. Among the items of special interest are the letters written by Walter A. Burlingame describing his experiences in China while accompanying his father, ambassador Anson Burlingame, in 1866 and 1867. Also, present are letters from well known authors including F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Marquand, Edith Wharton, Rudyard Kipling, Archibald MacLeish, Kaye Boyle, Sidney Howard, and others. The Legal and Financial Records group (Boxes 15-16), 18711967, contains documents pertinent to the-business affairs of several family members. There are wills, insurance policies, passports, royalty statements, and a variety of materials of a similar nature.
Memorabilia (Boxes 16-23) dating from 1865 to 1967 contains items of incidental interest about the private lives of the Burlingame and related families. Included in this group are address books, newspaper clippings, ephemera, genealogical records, biographical material, and photographs.
Organization records (Boxes 24-28), 1914-1964, consist of materials related to Roger Burlingame's association with various organizations. Among these are the Century Club, the Housatonic Valley Conference, Office of War Information, and the United States Army.
Writings (Boxes 28-54) date from 1856 to 1967, and include the written works of Roger, Ann, Walter, and Anson Burlingame. The bulk of this material was prepared by Roger Burlingame and includes articles, books, book reviews, diaries, poetry, short stories, and speeches. Included in this group are drafts of published and unpublished works as well as materials used in preparing the drafts. There is a miscellany of literary works written by others.

Arrangement of the Collection
Incoming letters are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the sender or by the name of the institution the sender represents. Outgoing correspondence is arranged chronologically by year and month. Some of the family correspondence has been separated out into a separate section. Items in Memorabilia are organized alphabetically by type of material. Manuscript materials are organized alphabetically by the name of the organization, and subdivided by the type of document. Writings are arranged alphabetically by author, and then by type of written work.
Note that due to rearrangement of the files there is NO BOX 14.

Access Restrictions
There are no access restrictions on this material.
Use Restrictions
Written permission must be obtained from SCRC and all relevant rights holders before publishing quotations, excerpts or images from any materials in this collection.

Subject Headings
Bacon, Leonard.
Beatty, Hetty Burlingame.
Boyle, Kay, 1902-1992.
Burlingame family Archives.
Burlingame, Anson, 1820-1870.
Burlingame, Edward L. (Edward Livermore), 1848-1922.
Burlingame, Roger, 1889-1967.
Davis, Elmer Holmes, 1890-1958.
Dos Passos, John, 1896-1970.
Dulles, Allen Welsh, 1893-1969.
Eisenhower, Milton Stover, 1899-1985.
Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, 1879-1958.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott (Francis Scott), 1896-1940.
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 1908-2006.
Goodman, Nathan G. (Nathan Gerson), 1899-
Howard, Sidney Coe, 1891-1939.
James, Henry, 1843-1916.
Kipling, Rudyard, 1865-1936.
MacLeish, Archibald, 1892-1982.
Marquand, John P. (John Phillips), 1893-1960.
Murrow, Edward R.
Osborne, Lithgow, 1892-1980.
Pringle, Henry F. (Henry Fowles), 1897-1958.
Roper, Elmo, 1900-1971.
Shirer, William L. (William Lawrence), 1904-1993.
Thurber, James, 1894-1961.
Watkins, Ann, 1885-1967
Wharton, Edith, 1862-1937.
Whinton, Angeline.
White, E. B. (Elwyn Brooks), 1899-1985.
Wilder, Thornton, 1897-1975.
Authors, American.
Biographers -- United States.
Literary agents.
Novelists, American.
Genres and Forms
Address books.
Appointment books.
Book reviews.
Manuscripts for publication.
Literary agents.
Administrative Information
Preferred Citation
Preferred citation for this material is as follows:
Burlingame Family Papers �€�Special Collections Research Center, �€�Syracuse University Library
Finding Aid Information
Created by: MLB�€�Date: Dec 1972�€�Revision history: 15 Sep 2008 - converted to EAD (MRC)

Relevant Materials



Box 9A

1862-1866 - WAB to mother
Box 9A

1866-1867 - WAB to mother
Box 9A

1868 - WAB to mother (2 folders)
Box 9A

mostly letters from WAB at school in Heidelberg
1869 (2 folders)
Box 9A

1870 (2 folders)
Box 9A

mostly letters from ELB at school
1868 Mar - 1869 Jun - from E. L. Burlingame
Box 9A

1866 Mar - 1873, undated


Biographical material
Box 18

mostly stuff same as LOC
Burlingame, Anson undated
Box 18

Clippings 1821-1956, undated (3 folders)
Box 18

Ephemera 1856-1918


Box 20

Burlingame, Anson circa 1865
Box 20

Burlingame, Edward Livermore circa 1850-1920
Box 20

Burlingame, Ella circa 1870-1874
Box 20

Burlingame family and friends 1850-1940 (3 folders)

Box 22

Clemens, Samuel L. (autographed) 1870-1909


Burlingame, Anson
Box 28

Speech, Defense of Massachusetts 1856


Burlingame, Walter A.

Box 54

"Peking" 1867 - this is a paper that WAB did as a school lesson



Box 54

Biggerstaff, Knight / "A Translation of Anson Burlingame's Instructions..." circa 1936

Box 55

Cowdin, Elliot C. / "Tribute to the Memory of Anson Burlingame" 1870

Notes from the reference librarian:

Thank you for calling the Special Collections Research Center at Syracuse University Library regarding your inquiry about the Burlingame Family Papers.

I looked through the correspondence in Box 9, as you requested, and found several letters written by Walter to his grandfather and mother from various locations in China and surrounding areas. Letters to his grandfather include one from Yokohama (24 August 1866), three from Shanghai (Oct 1866 and Dec 1867), seven from Peking (5 from Dec 1866-Apr 1867 and 2 from Sept-Oct 1867), one from Pat-a-chu(?) (18 May 1867), four from Lung-wong-tong (June-Sept 1867), and one aboard Steamer Delhi (21 Feb 1868). Letters to his mother included ones from Hong Kong (23 Jan 1868), aboard Steamer Reiver(?) (27 Jan 1868), Singapore (30 Jan 1868), and Benares (17 Feb 1868). There are also four letters to this mother from Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Beyrouth (Mar-Apr 1868). Letters to both his mother and grandfather later in 1868 (16 of them) are from Germany and Switzerland. Finally, I also found that there are two letters written by Gertrude from Peking (8 Feb 1867) and Pat-a-chu (13 July 1867) to her grandfather. All of these letters can be found in Box 9A.

I hope that this information helps you plan for your upcoming trip to the Special Collections Research Center. If we can do anything else to assist you, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Kristen Link
Reference Assistant
Special Collections Research Center
Syracuse University Library

British National Archives Search Results2.pdf


 Stanford U Special Collections

Folder name: Burlingame, Anson
Call Number M0119/1/5 (Box 1 folder 5)
Stanford Library Special Collections

Signed Letters:
AB to Brother Joel Burlingame, from Shanghai, 4/18/1862
Mentions he is about to leave for Peking and will form the (American) Legation there.

Mrs. B to sister, Peking 2/12/1867, 1 folded sheet with small handwriting on both sides. includes descriptions of life in Peking, see some excerpts below (photocopy requested)
“ There, we meet Mongolians with their long trains of camels, who have come to Peking to …they’re clothed in sheepskins from head to foot…
We love very much the wall of the city, and almost everyday we go to walk on the top of the wall, which is about 40 ft broad and paired with brick, the wall is 60 ft tall, build of brick, and filled in with earth. At sunset, all the gates in the wall are shut and no one can go out or come into the city …”
letter from Peking.pdf

Nelson H Burlingame to cousin 4/10/1939

“For the past 20 years, I have been writing a history of the ‘B” Family, which will be published this fall and I am very anxious that it be as nearly complete as possible.”

Manuscript article
Anson’s sociability 1892 (manuscript, 7 pages, photocopy requested)
Manuscript by Susan B, AB’s sister
Quote from an article published just after AB’s death on his sociability by Mr. ? (unable to decipher the name) of Tiffin, Ohio
Page 1
“We played together as children, attended the same school, Sabbath school and church. We joined the church at the same time. Now Anson Burlingame is dead, and the world has lost its most efficient worker, in the cause of Christianity civilization. By careful study and patient research he had become familiar with the language, literature, (?) and civil institutions of China, and was the first-Christian to win the free confidence of that (?) government and ? . Enchanted with the most important diplomatic duties ever committed to one man, he had nearly completed the mission when he was cut down by death. His career has (?) a tribute of gratitude…, another will testify as to the great and conspicuous events of his political life. Anson was handsome, jolly and loveable in childhood, as he was earnest, energetic and devoted in manhood.
Page 2
An account how “Anson always helped the oppressed”
Sociability of Anson.pdf

Newspaper clips:

Date and Source unknown (Most likely San Mateo Times, because County Clerk Hinmin refers to San Mateo County)
Title: A City Perpetuates His Name (photocopy requested)
Caption: Here is a reproduction of one of the few photographs in existence of Anson Burlingame, late American minister to China, for whom the city of Burlingame was named by William C. Ralston, the founder. It is from the family album of County Clerk Elmore B. Hinman, a grand-nephew of the envoy. The story of this elegant gentleman and how the city happened to be named for him was told in the Times’ History of Burlingame. Today’s chapter relates how Mr. Burlingame would have reaped a fourtune had he retained land he purchased here in the early days.

The Springfield Daily, 9/15/1904

Title: Voice of United States in Orient
“His untimely death, while in Europe, is thus referred to by John W. Foster, in his “Century of American Diplomacy”: “This event proved a double misfortune to China…secondly, in depriving its government of the services and leadership of an able and tactful foreigner to direct its efforts toward a more liberal and progressive policy. We can only conjecture what might have been the future of China if Mr. Burlingame’s life had been spared.”

Christian Science Monitor 9/30/1912
Title: Book on Work of Burlingame in China is especially Timely: Prof. F. Wells Williams Along With Biography Takes up Ethics of Dealing with New Republic

San Mateo Times 9/8/1934
Title The History of Burlingame, Chapter 2
Compiled by Constance Lister, Edited by Geoffrey A. Currall
(about Burlingame Treaty) “It also grants privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization being specifically withheld.
From the amended United States-China treaty sprang a strong hostility to the Chinese, particularly in San Francisco and other California ports, for the clauses added by Burlingame.
Bancroft says:
‘Against this liberal and intrinsically just policy, the anti-Chinese party in California protested, and as the years passed, rebelled more and more strenuously…The revised statutes of 1873 dropped the words, ‘being free white persons,’ by clerical error, it was alleged, and a few Asiatics took advantage of the wording to become naturalized. This advance upon the privileges of white and black men roused renewed hostility, public sentiment generally being against incorporating into our civilization there alien pagans, and in 1875 Mongolians were excluded from naturalization rights.’”

Note: Bancroft “History of California”

Banquet announcement with engraved portrait of AB

 Books and Dissertations

Books and Dissertations

Title: The Rocky Road to Liberty: A Documented History of Chinese Immigration and Exclusion
by: Sen Hu, Jielin Dong
Publisher: Chinese American Society

Title: Anson Burlingame and the First Chinese Mission to Foreign Powers
Author: Fredrick Wells Williams
In folder
Taken from the book:

“What he believed he believed with such intensity, what he spoke he spoke with such fevour, that the unbidden impulse was to believe and assent to be convinced”
On his arrival by the “overland” steamer in October 1861, Mr. Burlingame found the American legation in China located in the rented house of its charge and secretary, S. W. Williams, in the Portuguese settlement of Macao.
Mr. Burlingame’s concern in the incident known as that of the “Lay-Osborn Flotilla,” was only that of a mediator, but his tact and the close personal friendship he had cemented with the British minister enabled him to bring the Chinese to an amicable agreement in an embarrassing matter, where under less amiable guidance a rupture might have ensued.
An Englishman, Horatio Nelson Lay, the first inspector-general of the imperial customs service, was allowed to order a number of gunboats to be constructed in English for a Chinese coast patrol against pirates and smugglers. He greatly exceeded his instructions in executing the order, and in 1863 the Chinese found themselves confronted by a fleet of eight powerful steamers, in charge of English officers and crews, who were engaged to man them for a term of four years, to serve only under their English commanders and receive pay through Mr. Lay’s hands. The Chinese naturally declined to ratify an arrangement which actually involved an abdication of sovereignty in their own country. But in refusing to accept them, the vessels remained a menace to the peace of the Far East, either from pirates who might obtain them for use off the China coast, or for those feudal nobles in Japan who were upon the verge of rebellion…

Mr. Burlingame, conscious of the gravity of the crisis, and quickened by the risk to his own country, advised the Chinese, “1st, to give their reasons fully for not ratifying the offensive articles of the agreement; 2d, to thank the British Government and Captain Osborn for what they had done for them; and 3d, that inasmuch as there was a misunderstanding between them and their agent which could not be reconciled, they should request the British minister to have the flotilla returned to England under the direction of Captain Osborn, the ships sold, the men paid off and discharged, and the proceeds remitted to them. They followed this advice to the letter.”
Perhaps no single event in his life in China illustrates better than this the kind of hazards confronting a foreign minster dealing with Asiatics uninsured to the affairs of a new world, or the risks devolving which may bring a group of nations into jeopardy.
During an absence on leaving in America between the spring of 1865 and the autumn of 1866, Mr. Burlingame was able to advise the department of state upon the condition of affairs and to discuss with the secretary some proposals for future activity in China.

One suggestion embodied in a dispatch of the secretary, dated December 15, 1865, may, however, be noted as a promoting cause of the first essay made by China to examine into and report upon foreign nations through an agent of her own.
(From Seward to Burlingame) Sir: The harmonious condition of the relations between the United States and China, and the importance of the commerce between them, would make it agreeable to this government to receive from the Emperor a diplomatic representative of a grade corresponding with your own. It is true that this would be a novel, if not an unprecedented step on the part of that government…. China also may be said to have special reasons for the measure in respect to the United States, as her subjects are so numerous in this country, particularly in California. You will consequently bring this matter to the attention of that government, and may say that, if the suggestion should be adopted, it would be peculiarly gratifying to the President.
… The delegate sent to this mission is Pin-Chun, who has been acting for two or three years as revisor of custom-house returns, in connection with the foreign inspectorate, and has thus been brought into contact with foreigners and learned as much of their countries as his opportunities allowed. Before leaving the capital he was raised to the third rank, and formally introduced by Prince Kung to the foreign ministers on their New Year’s visit as his agent to their respective countries, sent on the part of the Foreign Office.
In the important matter of amending the scandal of coolie emigration from China, the foreign ministers found a comprehensive national agreement difficult at first, but they pursued, on the whole, a consistent and creditable policy, which after some years stopped the evils of kidnapping and deporting Chinese labourers.
From this reason he reports with characteristic enthusiasm…recommending the establishment of a government college for instruction in the arts and sciences of the West. .
“When I came to China, in 1861, the force policy was the rule. It was said: ‘the Chinese are conceited barbarians, and must be force into our civilization’ or, in the energetic language of time, it was said, ‘you must take them by the throat.’ Fortunately, the representatives of the treaty powers did not listen to this view. .. We were in relations for the first time with the chiefs of the government, and that it was necessary to proffer fair diplomatic action as a substitute for the old views, and to so bear ourselves as to secure the confidence of this people… Under the policy great development has occurred, mission have extended, trade has increased three fold, scientific men have been employed, ‘Wheaton’s International Law’ translated and adopted, military instruction accepted, nearly one hundred able men received into the civil service, steam-boats multiplied, the way slowly opened for future telegraphs and railroads, and now we have this great movement for education….and the intention of those now in authority is to go cautiously and steadily forward”
There has never been a moment since these hopeful lines were written when some of her own earnest and patriotic sons did not desire China to “go cautiously and steadily forward.”
The nineteenth century in centralised Japan was fermenting in decentralized China, where it was necessary to carry conviction to the mind of all her educated classes before the empire could be aroused to action.
Its manifestation on the part of Tsung-li officials was their sudden and rather desperate decision to send an embassy to the Christian powers, and entreat their further patience for a slowly awakening nation.
On November 21, 1867, Mr. Burlingame proceeded by cart with his family and a few friends on the 25th to Tientsin. ..The party should be threatened by a band of mounted brigands, and compelled to find safety in a village en route.
P.90 Prince Kung held a farewell dinner with Mr. Burlingame
“I may be permitted to add that when the oldest nation in the world, containing one-third of the human race, seeks, for the first time, to come into relations with the West, and requests the youngest nation, through its representative, to act as the medium of such change, the mission is not one to be solicited or rejected.”
In the weeks of his long journey across the Pacific, it often oppressed him with gloomy forebodings. Before he reached the Golden Gate they became at times almost unendurable. “Is it not possible,” he reasoned to himself, “that Americans may regard my acceptance of this foreign trust as a selling out of my birthright?”
..When the steamer sailed up to the wharf at San Francisco he was in a state of feverish excitement. The wharf was densely crowded. He looked from the deck of the steamer upon them, and wondered if it were possible that, in flamed by hostile criticism, they had come down there to jeer and insult him. The first man who came upon the deck before the steamer had swung round to its place was a porter, or baggage-man, who, of course, did not know him. Burlingame asked him, as coolly as possible, what all this crowd meant. “Why,” answered the man, “The whole city is here to welcome the new Chinese Minister, and the city authorities to proffer him its hospitalities.”
In Burlingame’s speech, he declared, “The mission means commerce; it means peace; it means a unification of her own interests with the whole human race. I agree with you, sir, here to-night that this is one of the mightiest movements of modern times; and although this ephemeral Mission may soon pass away, that great movement must go on. The great deed is done….I believe it represents more truly that large and generous spirit which is not too proud to learn and which is not afraid to teach; that great spirit which, while it would exchange goods with China, would also exchange thoughts with China; that would inquire carefully into the cause of that sobriety and industry of which you have made mention; that would learn something of the long experience of this people; that would question those institutions which have withstood the storms of time – as to the secret of their stability…that does not believe that the mind may no more be kindled that invented gunpowder, the compass, porcelain, paper and printing..”
Upon reaching Washington the Embassy was installed in Brown’s Hotel on Pennsylvania Avenue, where the great yellow flag bearing the imperial dragon floating over the roof attracted more attention than had ever before been given to the coming of new envoys to the capital. It was remarked, rather naively, at the time that the Chinese representatives were men of breeding and intellect-a suggestive commentary upon American acquaintance with the history and culture of this ancient empire.
Burlingame’s address in the White House:”We seek for China that equality without which nations and men are degraded. We seek not only the good of China, but we seek your good and the good of all mankind. We do this in no sentimental sense… We invite you to a broader trade. We invite you to a more intimate examination of the structure of Chinese civilization. We invite you to a better appreciation of the manners of that people, their temperance, their patience, their habits of scholarship…It is for the West to say whether it is for a fair and open policy, or for one founded on prejudice and on that assumption of superiority which is justified neither by physical ability nor by moral elevation.”
P.147 Burlingame Treaty draft
“This treaty recognizes China as an equal among the nations, in opposition to the old doctrine that because she was not a Christian nation she could not be placed in the roll of nations. Under the treaty the Chinese may spread their marble altars to the blue vault of heaven and may worship the spirit which dwells beyond. That treaty opens the gleaming gates of our public institutions to the students of China. That treaty strikes down the infamous coolie trade. It invites free immigration into the country of those sober and industrious people.
There is another article which is also important to China. It has been the habit of foreigners in China to lecture the Chinese and to say what they should do and what they should not do; in fact, to prefer almost a demand and say when they should build railroads, when they should build telegraphs;… This treaty denounces all such pretensions. It says particularly that it is for the Chinese themselves to determine when they will institute reforms, that they are the masters of their own affairs, that it is for them to make commercial regulations and do whatever they will, which is not in violation of the law of nations, within their territory.
I know this treaty will be attacked; you will wonder at it…But notwithstanding all this, I believe …the principles of that treaty, will make the tour of the world because it is founded in right, is founded in justice.”
On his way to Peking the new minister, Mr. J. Ross Browne, informs the state department of the amicable sentiments of the Californians in the following personal note to its chief clerk, Mr. Robert S. Chew: “It may interest you to know, that the new treaty as reported by telegraph has met with the cordial endorsement of the press of California. There is no unfriendly feeling here towards the Chinese among the influential and respectable class of the community. The objections urged against them are purely of a local and political character, and are confined chiefly to the lower class of Irish.A much more liberal sentiment now prevails on this subject than formerly…”
Throughout the country the newspaper press in commenting on the treaty re-echoed almost automatically the pleasantness and peace that had been extolled during the journeys of the Mission about the land.

American diplomacy in the Orient smqyl2

John Watson Foster
Boston, New York, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1903.
Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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A Sketch of Relations between the United States and China
by FW Williams
Yale University, 1910

Centennial Celebration of New Berlin (birthplace of AB) azmtx9
Dissertations on Anson Burlingame

Title: Anson Burlingame A Study in Personal Diplomacy
Author: Kim, Samuel Soonki / Columbia University Dissertation
Date: 1966
In Folder

Title: Anson Burlingame, S. Wells Williams and China, 1861-1870 A Great Era in Chinese-American Relations
Author: Martin R. Ring
In Folder
Notes: Most sources are from official dispatches.
Burlingame's reaction to the appointment to China P. 66-67
Burlingame in Ningpo, reaction to Taiping rebels P 68-69
Description of Burlingame's reaction to Chinese's adoption of national flag and message from Emperor: P 91 " Nothing was so suggestive of the Burlingame style ..."
Dispatch number 42 of June 20, 1863, foundation document of the cooperative policy (Note: Burlingame to Seward, June 20, 1863, Despatches, China, volume 20) P95
Introducing international law to china and its application
P108 encourage translation of "Elements of International Law"
P 109 proclamation regarding Confederate ship
P110-111 China used international law in the case of Prussia capturing Danish ships in China waters
Burlingame honoring Chinese government jurisdiction over chinese: P114-116
First farewell, ceremonies mentioning sending an envoy to the west etc. 1865 P118 -122
P118 note: detailed account by the interpreter included in the Despatch
Burlingame's efforts to deepen the co-operative policy
P196-197 Pumpelly article to "neutralize the arrogance of foreigners in China's treaty ports." from: Pumpelly, My Reminiscences, II, 476, 552
the article: Raphael Pumpelly, "Western Policy in China, " North American Review, CCXIX (April 1868)
Importing Chinese coolies to America P. 200
Tung Wen-huan and summary of his progress P. 208-209
British Minister's account of the initiation of the Burlingame Mission P. 214-216 he attributed it to Wen-hsiang's idea
Chapter on Burlingame Mission
Burlingame Treaty with commentary: religious liberty article is actually intended to protect Chinese in California against discrimination P. 256
Reception of the mission in Boston P. 258-259
Appraisal of Burlingame's speech and mission P.261-263
Swatow gunboat action and reaction from Burlingame (letter to Clarendon and C's response) P305-306

Clarendon letter characterize agreement as experimental P308
long letter to Wells Williams, January 23, 1870 (Williams Family Papers, Yale University), about rumors and negative reports on the mission, eloquent on how similar anti-Chinese missionaries are to pro-slavery Christians in US, very sympathetic to China, P320-322
Burlingame felt sick on 2/18/1870, "worried day and night" about the mission, died 2/23/1870 P324-325

Taken out from the Book:

P.68 [At] the port city of Ningbo, Burlingame could scarcely believe the carnage before his eyes. Heads assorted limbs, and truncated bodies lay in the street and the Taiping leaders threatened next to attack Shanghai. “They are the very incarnation of the obstruction” Burlingame wrote to Seward.
P. 88
The concession problem, which spread over the half year from November 1862 to May 1863, first involved the desire of the French consul at Ningpo to secure a concession of land for exclusive French use… Burlingame warned the Chinese of the great dangers of the concession doctrine. China might cede territory here and there, Burlingame argued, until the whole empire were ceded away and thus “its neutrality and nationality be lose.”
…[Burlingame] had secured agreement of his co-ministers at Peking, including the newly arrived French minister, against concessions. This concession is “a guarantee of the territorial integrity of the Chinese empire.”

P. 92 Burlingame’s reaction to the national flag of China
“By this act the Imperial Government, casting down the last shred of its exclusiveness, confronts us with a symbol of its power and demands a place among the nations.”

In the case involving the incoming Prussian minister to China, Baron von Rehfues, in which China used Wheaton to condemn Prussia’s capture of Danish ships in Chinese waters, China sought Burlingame’s backing for her argument that Prussia had illegally made the seizures in a “mare clausum.” …Obviously pleased that China had used international law to make its case, Burlingame played honest broker to both sides and the matter was ultimately resolved by the backdown of Prussia.

Burlingame JAER


 reminiscences by sister.pdf

Mission in France an Anecdote
Pioneer collections, Volume 5
Title: Anecdote of the Late Anson Burlingame
By Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan

OCRed text:

I recently noticed in a French journal the account of a pleasant affair at Paris, in which the tall Auson Burlingame was a principal actor, which will have a peculiar interest in Detroit and vicinity, where Mr. Burlingame spent many years of his youth, where he acquired the principal part of his education, and where he had many acquaintances and friends. I have made a free translation of the principal incidents, as related, for this society. The story is told, in the original, with inimitable grace and manner, much of which it necessarily loses in the translation.
When Mr. Burlingame was at Paris with the celebrated Chinese embassy, having become quite fatigued with public ceremony, he concluded one day to take a little private recreation in the country. With this view he went down to the sea shore, near Dieppe, where an intimate acquaintance of his by the name of Gudin, a celebrated painter, had a cottage residence. The next thing, as a matter of course, in such a locality, was to go out a fishing, in which amusement the painter and the great ambassador were almost miraculously successful, taking in a short time, a large quantity of various kinds of most excellent fish. The question then arose to determine what they should do with the fish. To eat or preserve them they could not, and they did not wish to throw them away; and the happy and humorous idea occurred to them —an idea which could have found a place only in great minds—to take the fish to Paris, and, as a capital piece of pleasantry, to sell them in the public market.
They accordingly purchased several baskets, which they filled, obtained transportation for them to the nearest railroad depot, loaded them on a car, and started for Paris on a freight train, about as well pleased as a couple of jolly fishermen would be, in going up to the great metropolis with a quantity of fresh fish from the coast of Normandy. They arrived at Paris about four o'clock in the morning, when the break of day began first to illuminate the heights of Mont Martel and the lofty towers of Notre Dame. This was au admirable time to be the first on the market, in order to get the first sales of fish; and determined still to carry out their adventure, they hired a horse and cart, loaded on their fish, and started for the grand Halle, near the Place Saint Gustache, being the principal fish market of Paris. In their walk through the streets, beside their cart of fish, many were the hearty laughs they had, and which were had at their expense, in view of their ridiculous exhibition; and they could not resist the temptation of indulging in all sorts of speculations, like the maid and the milk pail, of Esop, as to the amount they should realize for their fish, all fresh and scarcely done floundering from the English Channel. Buk although their fish were very fine, they concluded, on the whole, not to be too avaricious in this their first speculation, and to sell at moderate rates, so as to let the whole affair pass off with the utmost good humor. They arrived soon at the market, where they proceeded to unload their fish on the sidewalk, and to prepare for the sales.
Here began the troubles of our gay adventurers. It is a very easy and pleasant thing for great men to fish, but to sell fish is a very different affair. In laying their plans they had entirely overlooked the legal regulations of the market, which all the fish dealers well understood, and which they were interested to see enforced ; and they had also encumbered the sidewalk with their baskets of fish, in violation of the city ordinances. Thus situated they found themselves all at once surrounded, much to their surprise, with an excited crowd of market men and women. They were hissed and hooted; the women poured on them their choicest Billingsgate; they were jostled, pushed, and pulled about in the rudest manner; and they were even threatened with more violent treatment, with every appearance that the threats would be executed on the spot.
Totally dumbfounded, and even quite alarmed, the celebrated painter and the distinguished embassador of China to all the rest of the world, took to their heels and ran, amid derisive shouts from the multitude which had been attracted by the tumult, and made their escape to a neighboring street. This afforded the market people a'rare opportunity to take their vengeance on the fish, which had been brought all the way from Dieppe, and which had been thus incontinently abandoned. And this they proceeded at once to do as the legitimate spoils of the victors, carrying away in a few moments everything, even to the baskets. All this while the painter and embassador stood afar off, lifting up their eyes on the scene of devastation, but not daring to interpose Bo much as a gentle remonstrance, even diplomatically, in defense of their rights and privileges. They were, however, glad to notice that the cart which they had hired, was still left, though completely empty, with not a sardine left in it; and as for the horse, he stood feeding on cabbage leaves, with most profound and provoking philosophy, as if nothing of an extraordinary character had taken place.
"Very well," said Gudin, when he had recovered himself sufficiently to speak, "I am very glad we have escaped as well as we have." "Very well," said Mr. Burlingame, with his accustomed coolness, " dllons maintenant dejuner; " that is to say, "let us now go and take breakfast."
Thus ended a fishing excursion which began most happily in Dieppe, and ended most lamentably, as well as most ludicrously at Paris. It is not stated whether on the whole, the principal actors felt like relating their adventures to their friends, or not.

MT, Treaty with China.pdf

Mark Twain's Obit on Burlingame

Date: 1/1/1870
On Wednesday, in St. Petersburg, Mr. Burlingame died after a short illness. It is not easy to comprehend, at an instant's warning, the exceeding magnitude of the loss which mankind sustains in this death—the loss which all nations and all peoples sustain in it. For he had outgrown the narrow citizenship of a state and become a citizen of the world; and his charity was large enough and his great heart warm enough to feel for all its races and to labor for them. He was a true man, a brave man, an earnest man, a liberal man, a just man, a generous man, in all his ways and by all his instincts a noble man; he was a man of education and culture, a finished conversationalist, a ready, able, and graceful speaker, a man of great brain, a broad and deep and weighty thinker. He was a great man—a very, very great man. He was imperially endowed by nature; he was faithfully befriended by circumstances, and he wrought gallantly always, in whatever station he found himself.
He was a large, handsome man, with such a face as children instinctively trust in, and homeless and friendless creatures appeal to without fear. He was courteous at all times and to all people, and he had the rare and winning faculty of being always interested in what-ever aman had to say—a faculty which he possessed simply because nothing was trivial to him which any man or woman or child had at heart. When others said harsh things about even unconscionable and intrusive bores after they had retired from his presence, Mr. Burlingame often said a generous word in their favor, but never an unkind one.
Achivalrous generosity was his most marked characteristic—alargecharity,anoble kindliness that could not comprehend narrowness or meanness. It is this that shows out in his fervent abolitionism, manifested at atime when it was neither very creditable nor very safe to hold such a creed; it was this that prompted him to hurl his famous Brooks-and-Sumner speech in the face of an astonished South at atime when all the North was smarting under the sneers and taunts and material aggressions of admired and applauded Southerners. It was this that made him so warmly espouse the cause of Italian liberty—an espousal sopointed and sovigorous as to attract the attention of Austria, which empire afterward declined to receive him when he was appointed Austrian envoy by Mr. Lincoln. It was this trait which prompted him to punish Americans in China when they imposed upon the Chinese. It was this trait which moved him, in framing treaties, to frame them in the broad interest of the world, instead of selfishly seeking to acquire advantages for his own country alone and at the expense of the other party to the treaty, as had always before been the recognized "diplomacy."It was this trait which was and is the soul of the crowning achievements of his career, the treaties with America and England in behalf of China. In every labor of this man's life there was present a good and noble motive; and in nothing that he ever did or said was there anything small or base. In real greatness, ability, grandeur of character, and achievement, he stood head and shoulders above all the Americans of to-day, save one or two.
Without any noise, or any show, or any flourish, Mr. Burlingame did ascore of things of shining mark during his official residence in China. They were hardly heard of away here in America. When he first went to China, he found that with all their kingly powers, American envoys were still not of much consequence in the eyes of their countrymen of either civil or official position. But he was a man who was always "posted." He knew all about the state of things he would find in China before he sailed from America. And so he took care to demand and receive additional powers before he turned his back upon Washington. When the customary consular irregularities placidly continued and he notified those officials that such irregularities must instantly cease, and they inquired with insolent flippancy what the consequence might be in case they did not cease, he answered blandly that he would dismiss them, from the highest to the lowest! (He had quietly come armed with absolute authority over their official lives.) The consular irregularities ceased. A far healthier condition of American commercial interests ensued there.
To punish a foreigner in China was an unheard-of thing. There was no way of accomplishing it. Each Embassy had its own private district or grounds, forced from the imperial government, and into that sacred district Chinese law officers could not intrude. All foreigners guilty of offenses against Chinamen were tried by their own country-men, in these holy places, and as no Chinese testimony was admitted, the culprit almost always went free. One of the very first things Mr. Burlingame did was to make a Chinaman's oath as good as a foreigner's; and in his ministerial court, through Chinese and American testi-mony combined, he very shortly convicted a noted American ruffian of murdering a Chinaman. And now a community accustomed to light sentences were naturally startled when, under Mr. Burlingame'shand, and bearing the broad seal of the American Embassy, came an order to take him out and hang him!
Mr. Burlingame broke up the "extraterritorial" privileges (as they were called), as far as our country was concerned, and made justice as free to all and as untrammeled in the metes and bounds of its jurisdiction, in China, as ever it was in any land.
Mr. Burlingame was the leading spirit in the co-operative policy. He got the Imperial College established. He procured permission for an American to open the coal mines of China. Through his efforts China was the first country to close her ports against the war vessels of the Southern Confederacy; and Prince Kung's order, in this matter, was singularly energetic, comprehensive, and in earnest. The ports were closed then, and never opened to a Southern warship afterward.
Mr. Burlingame "construed" the treaties existing between China and the other nations. For many years the ablest diplomatists had vainly tried to come to a satisfactory understanding of certain obscure clauses of these treaties, and more than once powder had been burned in consequences of failure to come to such understandings. But the clear and comprehensive intellect of the American envoy reduced the wordy tangle of diplomatic phrases to a plain and honest handful of paragraphs, and these were unanimously and thankfully accepted by the other foreign envoys, and officially declared by them to be a thorough and satisfactory elucidation of all the uncertain clauses in the treaties.
Mr. Burlingame did a mighty work, and made official intercourse with China lucid, simple, and systematic, thenceforth for all time, when he persuaded that government to adopt and accept the code of international law by which the civilized nations of the earth are guided and controlled.
It is not possible to specify all the acts by which Mr. Burlingame made himself largely useful to the world during his official residence in China. At least it would not be possible to do it without making this sketch too lengthy and pretentious for a newspaper article.
Mr. Burlingame's short history—for he was only forty-seven—reads like a fairy tale. Its successes, its surprises, its happy situations, occur all along, and each new episode is always an improvement upon the one which went before it.
He begins life an assistant in a surveying party away out on the Western frontier; then enters a branch of a Western college; then passes through Harvard with the honors; becomes a Boston lawyer and looks back complacently from his high perch upon the old days when he was a surveyor nobody in the woods; becomes a state senator, and makes laws; still advancing, goes to the Constitutional Convention and makes regulations wherewith to rule the makers of laws; enters Congress and smiles back upon the Legislature and the Boston lawyer, and from these smiles still back upon the country surveyor, recognizes that he is known to fame in Massachusetts; challenges Brooks and is known to the nation; next, with a long stride upward, he is clothed with ministerial dignity and journeys to the under side of the world to represent the youngest in the court of the oldest of the nations; and finally, after years go by, we see him moving serenely among the crowned heads of the Old World, a magnate with secretaries and under secretaries about him, a retinue of quaint, outlandish Orientals in his wake, and a long following of servants—and the world is aware that his salary is unbelievably enormous, not to say imperial, and like-wise knows that he is invested with power to make treaties with all the chief nations of the earth, and that he bears the stately title of Ambassador, and in his person represents the, mysterious and awful grandeur of that vague colossus, the Emperor of China, his mighty empire and his four hundred millions of subjects! Down what a dreamy vista his backward glance must stretch, now, to reach the insignificant surveyor in the Western woods!
He was a good man, and a very, very great man. America lost a son, and all the world a servant, when he died.

150_Years_of Chinese_Students in America.pdf


 Chinese Embassy 1868 Boston.pdf

Chinese Embassy in England